Pigeon Farming in Nigeria

Pigeon Farming is very interesting, profitable and pigeons are very popular domestic bird. Pigeons are considered as the symbol of peace. Almost all types of people who have facilities, love to raise some pigeon in their home. Pigeon farming require less labor and low investment. Even you can also raise and take care of them during your in leisure time.

The meat of baby pigeon (squab) is very tasty, nutritious and restorative. Squabs also have huge demand and price in the market. On the other hand pigeon farming can be a great source of some extra income and entertainment.

Raising pigeons using modern methods is very profitable than traditional way. So, to be successful in pigeon farming business, use modern rearing techniques and take good care of your birds. Here we are describing more about the advantages of pigeon farming and steps for starting this lucrative business.

Advantages of Pigeon Farming

Pigeon farming has some great benefits. The main and notable advantages of this business profitable are described below.

  • Pigeons are domestic bird and it’s very easy to handle them.
  • From their six month of age they start laying eggs and produce two baby pigeon per month on an average.
  • Pigeon can be raised easily in the home yard and roof of the house.
  • It takes about 18 days to hatch their eggs.
  • Baby pigeon (squab) become suitable for consumption within their 3 to 4 weeks of age.
  • You can build a pigeon house in a small place with little investment.
  • Pigeon feeding costs is very low. In most cases they collect food by themselves.
  • Pigeon meat is very tasty, nutritious and has a great demand and value in the market.
  • Pigeon farming is also very pleasing and entertaining. You can spent some good times through watching the activities of pigeons.
  • You can get maximum profit form them, by investing small capital and labor.
  • Diseases are comparatively less in pigeons.
  • Closet of pigeon is a good manure for crop cultivation.
  • Different types of toys can be made by the feather of pigeons.
  • Pigeons help to keep the environment safe by eating different types of insects.
  • The squab has has a great demand in the market as a good patient’s diet.
  • Pigeons start laying eggs at their 5 to 6 months of age.
  • Pigeon farming can be a great income source for the people of some poor country, such as Bangladesh, India, Nigeria, Pakistan etc.

Life cycle

Generally pigeons are raised in pair. One pair of male and female pigeon stay together for their whole life. They can survive for about 12 to 15 years. Male and female both collect straw together and build a small nest for them to live. Female pigeon start laying eggs at the age of 5-6 months of age. They lay two eggs every time and their breeding capability stays for about 5 years.

Both male and female pigeons hatch the eggs. Usually it takes about 17 to 18 days to hatch the eggs. The stomach of baby pigeon contains crop milk, which they eat for 4 days. Female pigeon feed their baby for ten days by their lips. After that, they start taking supplementary food by their own. At their age of 26 days, they become adult.

Pigeon Breeds

There are about three hundred pigeon breeds available around the world. Pigeon breeds are of two types which are described below.

  • Meat Productive Breeds: White king, Texona, Silver king, Gola, Lokha, etc. are meat productive pigeons.
  • Entertaining: Moyurponkhi, Shirazi, Lohore, Fantail, Jacobin, Frillback, Modena,Trumpeter, Trubit, Mukhi, Giribaz, Templar, Lotal etc. are most popular entertaining pigeons.

Generally, the main purpose of pigeon farming is their meat. The meat of baby pigeon is soft and tasty than the adult one. Weight of some fleshy squab productive pigeon breeds are described below.

Breeds Name Adult Squab
White King 755 500
Carneau 700 450
Homer 730 400
French Mondain 750 550
Swiss Mondain 800 600


Housing is very important factor for pigeon farming. Keep in mind the following factors before making house for yuor pigeons.

  • Built their house in a higher place. This will keep the pigeons free from dog, cat, mouse and some other harmful predators.
  • Ensure huge flow of air and light inside the house.
  • Prevent the entrance of rain water directly inside the house.
  • The house can be build by thin wood or tin, bamboo or with packing boxes.
  • Every pigeon require about 30 cm long, 30 cm high and 30 cm wide space.
  • Every room of the pigeon house have to have the facilities of staying two pigeon.
  • The house will be adjoining to each other and polyhedral.
  • Keep a door on every room measuring 10×10 cm.
  • Always try to keep the house clean and dry.
  • Clean the house once or twice per month.
  • Keep the food and water pot near the house.
  • Keep some straw near the house, so that the pigeons can make bed for them.
  • Keep water and sand near the house, as they clean their body by water and dust.


Pigeons generally eat wheat, maize, paddy, rice, enamel, legume, triticum aestivus mustard, gram etc. Keep foods in front of their house and they will take the food by themselves. You have to serve them balanced feed for proper growing, good health and for proper production. You can also serve them balanced feed, prepared for the chickens. Pigeon feed should contain 15-16 % protein.

Every pigeon consume 35-50 grams of grainy feed daily. For fast growing of baby pigeon and for nutrition of adult, feed them oyster shell, lime stone, bone powder, salt, greet mixture, mineral mixture etc. with their regular feed. Along with this, feed them some green vegetables daily. A chart of balanced feed for pigeons mentioned below.

Feed Ingredients Amount (kg)
Broken Wheat 2.8 kg
Broken Maize 2.2 kg
Mustard 1.0 kg
Broken Gram 1.0 kg
Soyabean Cake 0.8 kg
Rice Bran 1.8 kg
Salt 0.4 kg
Total 10 kg

Baby Pigeon’s Feed

Baby pigeons (squab) don’t need extra feed for 5-7 days. They take crop milk from their parents stomach. Which is known as pigeon milk. Male and female pigeon feed their baby in this way for 10 days. After that, they become able to fly and feed themselves by their own. Keep fresh feed and clean water near their house.


Keep water pot near their house. They will drink and take bath from that water pot. Clean the water pot daily. Try to serve them sufficient amount of clean water always.

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Egg production

Generally male and female pigeon stay in pairs. During laying period they collect straw and make a small nest. Female pigeon start laying eggs when they reach 5 to 6 months of age. They lay a pair of egg after every one month. Both male and female pigeon hatch the eggs one after another. It takes about 17 to 18 days to hatch the eggs. If artificial nest needed, make it. As the eggs are very small in size, so squab production is very profitable than consuming the eggs.


Diseases in pigeons are comparatively less than any other poultry birds. They suffers by TB, paratyphoid, cholera, pox, newcastle, influenza etc. Besides this they can also suffer by various louse and malnutritious diseases. Remedy methods of some pigeon diseases are described below.

  • Follow the advice of an experienced veterinarian.
  • Keep the pigeon house clean and germ free.
  • Separate the disease affected bird from healthy birds.
  • Vaccinate them timely.
  • Keep them free from worms.
  • Feed them balanced food to prevent malnutritious diseases.
  • Use medicine for removing louse from their body.